How a Paint is Made?

According to Oxford dictionary,  paint is ‘A colored substance which is spread over a surface and dries to leave a thin decorative or protective coating’. The primary use is for decoration and protection of natural and synthetic materials from changing the environment.  ‘ A Paint contains pigment, a binder, solvents, and additives.    Pigments are natural as well as man-made. Natural pigments are made from plants, sand, and different soils while synthetic pigments have the same chemical composition as natural pigments but are artificial.

Preparing a quality paint requires great efforts. From crushing minerals into a fine powder to prepare pigments, to mixing that pigment with water, oil, or another base along with solvents, additives, and resins to form the paste is laborious.  This paste forms the final product. There are typically four steps to create the final paint.

Collection and Measurement of the Ingredients

Paint formation is generally in a number of 100’s of liters of product. Preparation of large amount of requires a large amount of ingredient.  The ingredient is in the amount of 1000’s of kg. Weighing scales or calibrated vats does the weight and volume measurement of the ingredient respectively. Measurement accuracy is  +/- of a few Kg’s (5-10) in 10000-20000 kgs.

Preparation and Dispersion of Pigments

Crushing shortens the size of the ingredients and prepares a powder-like texture. The size of the pigments is so small that it generally results in the formation of agglomerates. Mixing additives prevent the formation of clumps. This is the dispersion of pigments. A slow and steady addition of pigments to the liquid additives forms fewer clumps. High-speed mixtures combine and disperse pigments.  Mill base equipment is rotating stainless steel serrated discs of up to 60cm diameter with the speed of 1000 rpm. Ball milling is used for pigments which don’t disperse easily.  Ball mills are large rotating drums with a small porcelain balls.

Preparing the Paint

The testing mill base gives the percentage of mixing. Filtration of the mixture removes impurities and unwanted particles. Thinning of this paste produces the paint.

Testing & Canning the Final Product

Monitoring the entire process of paint preparation and testing the ingredients is necessary. After testing the final sample to assure conformance to relevant standards and specifications and is then proceed for canning.

A paint is not just a combination of chemical elements, a lot of efforts are behind creating the best paint which gives you a beautiful house.

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